(Giant Cell Arteritis)
- Giant cell arteritis (GCA)—another name for temporal arteritis
- Vasculitis—a general term for swelling or inflammation of blood vessels
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- Age: 50 or older
- Race: White, especially of Scandinavian or northern European descent
- Location: northern latitudes
- Sex: female
- Family member with temporal arteritis
- Polymyalgia rheumatica , a condition characterized by stiffness and pain in muscles of the neck, shoulders, lower back, hips, and thighs
- Smoking and low body weight
- Age: 50 or older
- New localized headache
- Temporal artery tenderness or decreased temporal artery pulse
- Sedimentation rate of 50 mm/hour or greater
- Abnormal temporal artery biopsy
- Blood tests, including a sedimentation rate, c-reactive protein, hemoglobin, or hematocrit
- Biopsy —removal of a sample of the temporal artery for testing
- Retinal exam
- Ultrasound of the temporal artery
- Osteoporosis —weakening of bones
- Diabetes —high glucose levels in blood
- Cataracts —clouding of the eye's lens
- Stomach irritation
American Academy of Family Physicians http://www.aafp.org/
Arthritis Foundation http://www.arthritis.org/
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke http://www.ninds.nih.gov/
Canadian Cardiovascular Society http://www.ccs.ca/
Canadian Society of Otolaryngology http://www.entcanada.org/
American Academy of Family Physicians website. Available at: http://www.aafp.org .
Karahaliou M, Vaiopoulos G, Papspyrou S. Colour duplex sonography of temporal arteries before decision for biopsy: a prospective study in 55 patients with suspected giant cell arteritis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2006;8:R116.
Larsson K, Mellström D, Nordborg C, Odén A, Nordborg E. Early menopause, low body mass index, and smoking are independent risk factors for developing giant cell arteritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2006;65:529-532.
Lawrence RC, Helmick CG, Arnett FC, et al. Estimates of the prevalence of arthritis and selected musculoskeletal disorders in the United States. Arthritis Rheum. 1998; 41:778.
Nat Clin Pract Rheumatol . 2006;2:443-451.
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke website. Available at: http://www.ninds.nih.gov .
Parikh M, Miller NR, Lee AG, et al. Prevalence of a normal c-reactive protein with an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate in biopsy-proven giant cell arteritis. Ophthalmology . 2006;113(10):1842-1845.
Smetana GW, Shmerling RH. Does this patient have temporal arteritis? JAMA. 2002; 287:92.
Temporal arteritis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php . Updated December 2009. Accessed February 10, 2010.
University of Southern California Department of Neurosurgery website. Available at: http://archsurg.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/139/11/1146 .
- Reviewer: Michael J. Fucci, DO
- Review Date: 09/2012 -
- Update Date: 00/92/2012 -
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