(Spasmodic Torticollis; Cervical Dystonia)
- Genetic defect
- Infant's position during pregnancy or delivery
- Head or neck injury
- Infection in neck muscles or bones
- Damage or failure of the nervous system
- Inner ear or eye problems
- Deformities of the bones or muscles in the neck
- Tumors of the head or neck
- Arthritis of the neck
- Use of certain medications
|Muscles of the Neck|
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- Rotation and tilting of the head to one side
- Shortening of neck muscles on one side, possibly present at birth
- Stiffness of neck muscles
- Painful spasms of neck and upper back muscles
- Limited range of motion of the head and neck
- Stretching exercises several times each day
- In some situations, surgery to lengthen the tendon
- Identifying the cause
- Physical therapy, especially when used with botulinum toxin, to help relax the muscle and reduce pain
- In some situations, surgery to cut the nerve to the muscle that is in spasm
- Deep brain stimulation surgery
- Certain oral medications, such as pain medication and muscle relaxants
- Botulinum toxin to weaken or partially paralyze the muscle—This may help improve neck posture, but only if begun soon after torticollis begins. The drug's effect wears off after several months and treatment must be repeated.
- Alcohol or phenol to deaden the nerve that causes the muscle contraction
Dystonia Medical Research Foundation http://www.dystonia-foundation.org
National Spasmodic Torticollis Association http://www.torticollis.org
The College of Family Physicians of Canada http://www.cfpc.ca
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca
Cervical dystonia. Dystonia Medical Research Foundation website. Available at: https://www.dystonia-foundation.org/what-is-dystonia/forms-of-dystonia/focal-dystonias/cervical-dystonia. Accessed June 16, 2015.
Cervical dystonia. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated October 23, 2014. Accessed June 16, 2015.
Collins A, Jankovic J. Botulinum toxin injection for congenital muscular torticollis presenting in children and adults. Neurology. 2006;67:1083-1085.
Corrado G, Fossati C, et al. Irritable oesophagus: A new cause of Sandifer's syndrome. Acta Paediatr. 2006;95:1509-1510.
Dystonias fact sheet. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke website. Available at: http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/dystonias/detail%5Fdystonias.htm. Updated February 23, 2015. Accessed June 16, 2015.
Herman MJ. Torticollis in infants and children: common and unusual causes. Instr Course Lect. 2006;55:647-653.
Hoehn KS, Capouya JD, et al. Lemierre-like syndrome caused by community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus complicated by hemorrhagic pericarditis. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2010;11(3):e32-5.
Preto TE, Dalvi A, et al. A prospective blinded evaluation of deep brain stimulation for the treatment of secondary dystonia and primary torticollis syndromes. J Neurosurg. 2008;109:405-409.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 06/2015 -
- Update Date: 06/16/2015 -
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
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