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- Organisms that cause bladder or kidney infections
- Organisms that cause sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)
- Other bacteria
- Multiple sexual partners
- Recent change in sexual partners
- Unprotected sex (without use of a condom)
- History of other STDs
- Bacterial infection of other parts of the urinary tract (bladder, kidney, prostate)
- Medications that lower resistance to bacterial infection
- Having catheters or tubes placed in the bladder
- Acidic foods
- Pain and/or burning while urinating
- Blood in the urine
Increase in urinary:
- Itching, swelling, and/or tenderness in the groin
- Pain during sex
- Discharge from the penis
- Blood in the semen
- Pain during ejaculation
- Swollen and/or tender testicles
- Urethral swab for microscopic study or culture
- Blood and urine tests
- Specific tests for gonorrhea, chlamydia, or other STDs
- Antibiotics—to treat urethritis caused by bacteria
- Antiviral drugs—to treat urethritis caused by a some viruses
- Practicing safe sex by using condoms and barrier methods of contraception
- Urinating immediately after having sexual intercourse
- Treating all sexual partners who are infected or exposed
- Regularly drinking plenty of fluids
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention http://www.cdc.gov
Urology Care Foundation http://www.urologyhealth.org
Canadian Urological Association http://www.cua.org
Women's Health Matters http://www.womenshealthmatters.ca
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2010. MMWR. 2010;59(No. RR-12):1-110.
Diseases characterized by urethritis and cervicitis. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/std/treatment/2010/urethritis-and-cervicitis.htm. Updated August 18, 2014. Accessed September 30, 2014.
Diseases characterized by urethritis and cervicitis. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2006;55(R11):1-94.
Miller KE. Diagnosis and treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Am Fam Physician. 2006;73:1411-1416.
- Reviewer: Adrienne Carmack, MD
- Review Date: 08/2014 -
- Update Date: 09/30/2013 -
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
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