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- Antibiotic use
- Having a new sexual partner or multiple partners
- Having sex without a condom
- Using an intrauterine device (IUD) for birth control
- Itching around the vagina
- Vaginal irritation
- Burning feeling while urinating
Abnormal vaginal discharge
- Color: white or gray
- Consistency: thin, foamy, or watery
- Odor: fish-like, especially after sex
- Sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV , gonorrhea , or chlamydia
- Pelvic inflammatory disease
- Premature birth
- Abstain from sex or remain monogamous.
- Use condoms when having sex.
- Do not use douches.
- After bowel movements, wipe from front to back, away from the vagina.
The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists http://www.acog.org
Women's Health—US Department of Health and Human Services http://www.womenshealth.gov
Sexuality and U—The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada http://www.sexualityandu.ca
Women's Health Matters http://www.womenshealthmatters.ca
Bacterial vaginosis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated September 16, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2014.
Bacterial vaginosis. US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/std/BV/STDFact-Bacterial-Vaginosis.htm. Updated March 11, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2014.
Bacterial vaginosis fact sheet. Women's Health—US Department of Health and Human Services website. Available at: http://womenshealth.gov/publications/our-publications/fact-sheet/bacterial-vaginosis.cfm. Updated July 16, 2012. Accessed October 30, 2014.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2010. MMWR 2010;59(No. RR-12):1-110.
Martin HL, Nyange PM, Richardson BA, et al. Hormonal contraception, sexually transmitted diseases, and risk of heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Infect Dis. 1998;178:1053-1059.
Martin HL, Richardson BA, Nyange PM, et al. Vaginal lactobacilli, microbial flora, and risk of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and sexually transmitted disease acquisition. J Infect Dis. 1999;180:1863-1868.
Myer L, Kuhn L, Stein ZA, et al. Intravaginal practices, bacterial vaginosis, and women's susceptibility to HIV infection: epidemiological evidence and biological mechanisms. Lancet Infect Dis. 2005;5:786-794.
Taha TE, Hoover DR, Dallabetta GA, et al. Bacterial vaginosis and disturbances of vaginal flora: association with increased acquisition of HIV. AIDS. 1998;12:1699-1706.
Van de Wijgert JH, Morrison CS. Cornelisse PG, et al. Bacterial vaginosis and vaginal yeast, but not vaginal cleansing, increase HIV-1 acquisition in African women. JAIDS. 2008;48:203-210.
7/7/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Qaseem A, Humphrey LL, et al. Screening pelvic examination in adult women: a clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2014 Jul 1;161(1):67-72.
- Reviewer: Andrea Chisholm, MD
- Review Date: 12/2014 -
- Update Date: 12/20/2014 -
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
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