Principal Proposed Uses
Citrus aurantium is the Latin name for a fruit called Seville orange, or bitter orange. The juice, peel, and essential oil have all been used medicinally. Traditionally uses include digestive problems, epilepsy, fatigue, insomnia, infections, respiratory problems, skin problems, and many other uses. As a flavoring, essence of bitter orange is found in the drinks Triple Sec and Cointreau.
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essential oilCitrus aurantium
Many Citrus aurantium products are made from the juice and/or concentrated extracts of the peel and are said to contain a fixed percentage of synephrine or total amines. A typical recommended dosage of such products ranges from 100–150 mg two to three times daily. However, these doses may be unsafe.
Most of the safety concerns regarding citrus aurantium relate to its stimulant constituents.
Synephrine can also interact with numerous medications and other drugs, including stimulants (e.g., ephedrine , pseudoephedrine (Sudafed), Ritalin, and even caffeine) and anesthetics. The tyramine constituent of Citrus aurantium can cause deadly side effects when combined with drugs in the MAO inhibitor family.
The peel and essential oil of Citrus aurantium may cause photosensitivity (increased tendency to react to sun exposure). For this reason, combination treatment with drugs that cause the same side effect (such as sulfa antibiotics ) is not recommended.
In particular, the drugs cyclosporine and felodipine (a calcium channel blocker ) are thought to be affected by Citrus aurantium juice, but numerous other drugs may interact with it as well. For this reason, we recommend that if you are taking any medication that is critical to your health, you should not take Citrus aurantium juice.
Safety in young children, pregnant or nursing women, or people with severe liver or kidney disease has not been established.
Interactions You Should Know About
If you are taking
- Drugs in the MAO inhibitor family: Do not use Citrus aurantium at all.
- Ephedrine, pseudoephedrine (Sudafed), Ritalin, cyclosporine , calcium channel blockers, drugs that cause photosensitivity (such as sulfa antibiotics ), or any medication that is critical to your health: Do not use Citrus aurantium without consulting a physician.
- Reviewer: EBSCO CAM Review Board
- Review Date: 08/2013 -
- Update Date: 08/22/2013 -